Functions

Terminal functions
Gate terminal has three storage tanks, three jetties, three loading sites for trucks and an area in which LNG is converted into natural gas. The terminal fits within the Dutch and European energy policy, the important basic principles being the strategic distribution of LNG supply in a sustainable, safe and environmentally friendly way. Gate is contracted by clients who are the LNG owners.

Gate undertakes the following actions regarding the supplied LNG:

  • Receipt and unloading: Before an LNG carrier starts to unload, an extensive safety checklist is completed. The liquefied gas is transferred from the carrier to the storage tanks via an unloading facility and a pipeline. A vapour recovery system ensures that no under or over-pressure can occur in any of the tanks, enabling the transfer to run efficiently and safely.
  • Storage and cooling: LNG is temporarily stored in extremely well-insulated tanks. The product can be kept cool by extracting LNG vapours, which causes the tank temperature to drop. These vapours are then added to the gas that is distributed via the gas pipeline.
  • Heating and distribution of gas: The LNG is pumped from the tanks and pressurised. It is then heated and regasified and leaves the terminal as natural gas via underground pipelines. These connect to the gas transport network for further distribution to households and industry in the Netherlands and Northwest Europe.
  • Loading in small vessels and trucks: The loading of cooled LNG into small vessels and trucks for distribution to smaller terminals, petrol stations and larger vessels, where it is used as fuel.
  • Reloading: The reloading of LNG to large carriers, so that Gate customers can trade in LNG on the global market.


LNG Functions

  • LNG as source for natural gas: A cubic metre of natural gas in liquefied form occupies fewer than 0.2 percent of the volume of the fuel in its gaseous state. That is why it is much better to store and transport LNG than gaseous natural gas. For long distances, it is thus more efficient to liquefy the gas and transport it by vessel.
  • LNG as fuel for vessels: Compared with diesel and heavy fuel oil, LNG has a much lower impact on climate, environment and health. Natural gas in liquid form occupies six hundred times less volume than in its gaseous state, which means that enough fuel can be stored in the tank to cover the same distances as when using diesel or heavy fuel oil. Without the need for additional measures, vessels running on LNG satisfy the emission standards for the maritime sector in the North Sea and Baltic Sea, which were tightened in 2015 (SECA). IMO, the UN maritime organisation, stipulates that as of 1 January 2020, vessel fuel may contain no more than 0.5 percent sulphur. LNG meets this standard. Older vessels can be equipped with filters, while for new vessels, an LNG propelled engine seems like an obvious choice.
  • LNG as fuel for trucks: LNG is currently the most environmentally friendly alternative for diesel and heavy fuel oil in the transport sector. It is a promising alternative fuel for the transition to clean transport by truck or vessel. Trucks running on LNG have lower particle, sulphur oxide and CO2 emissions. Using LNG as fuel for gas engines is much quieter than running diesel engines. The difference in noise levels is so great that trucks running on LNG can be used at night in locations in which they currently can only be used during the day due to noise nuisance.
  • LNG for trade: Customers can supply gas from Gate terminal to smaller terminals in Europe, where large gas carriers cannot unload directly. Gate fulfils an important network function in this area. The supply and collection of LNG underlines the value of the terminal’s storage opportunities. Secondly, Gate terminal can reload LNG in large carriers for supply to other destinations worldwide to cover for sudden shortages at those locations.