LNG facts

LNG is an abbreviation of Liquefied Natural Gas. LNG is natural gas that is cooled at atmospheric pressure to -162°C, when it condenses to becomes liquid. LNG is not pressurised and is odourless, non-toxic and non-corrosive. It is simply cold. LNG is only flammable if, following evaporation, it comes into contact with an ignition source and the level of gas in the air is between 5% and 15%.

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Liquefied Natural Gas

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Where does LNG come from?

LNG mainly comes from areas in which large amounts of natural gas have been discovered, such as North Africa, the Middle East and Western India. Examples of LNG-producing countries are Norway, Russia, Nigeria, Algeria, Egypt, Oman, Qatar, Indonesia, Malaysia and Australia.

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How does LNG fit within Dutch government policy?

The Netherlands aims to continue to play a role in the trade of gas. The production and storage of gas and the network of pipelines means that the Netherlands already has a strong starting position. This position can be strengthened through new pipeline connections, for instance to Great Britain and from Russia, but also through LNG terminals. This completes the Netherlands’s role as gas hub. Partly because of increased dependency on imports, an LNG terminal makes an effective contribution to the reliability and continuity of the gas supply.

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How is LNG stored?

LNG storage takes place in specially designed, large-scale ‘full containment tanks’. These tanks comprise a metal inner tank and a fully concrete outer tank. Thermal insulation between the steel inner tank containing the LNG and the concrete outer tank reduces the LNG daily evaporation rate to approximately 0.07% of the tank capacity per day. These vapours are collected and mixed with the gas send-out to the gas pipeline system. 

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Where is LNG sent?

The gas is delivered to purchasers via the gas transport network, for example to households and industries in the Netherlands. Gate terminal is also an important distribution point for Northwest Europe.

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What is the difference between LNG and LPG?

Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) is often confused with LNG and vice versa. LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) comprises mainly propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10) and is mainly used for household and commercial applications (also in cars). LPG is kept liquefied at high pressure, in contrast to LNG, which is liquid at atmospheric pressure, but at an extremely low temperature (approx -160°C). 

The properties of LPG are also very different from those of LNG. Natural gas is lighter than air so that it disperses and dilutes more quickly than LPG components, which are heavier than air.